The centre, at the Arc Sports Centre within the Glasgow Caledonian University campus, will be open to anyone with COVID-19 symptoms who needs a test.
Tests must be booked in advance by making an appointment via NHS Inform, and visitors must arrive at the centre by bike, wheel or on foot.
An initial 11 centres are due to be open by the end of October, with a further 11 planned over the winter.
Consideration is currently being given to the location of the remaining sites which will be easily accessible to all.
Health Secretary Jeane Freeman said: “Containing and suppressing this virus relies on testing being accessible to everyone. These walk through testing centres will further increase our testing capacity ahead of potential spikes as we move into winter.
“Centres, like this one in Glasgow, can be operational in a matter of days, and we are working at pace with NHS National Services Scotland and local authorities to roll out more across the country so that more people have access to local testing.
“We will continue to adapt our testing strategy in line with the different stages of the pandemic. However, testing is only one effective intervention that we are using to manage the virus and it remains vital that people continue to follow physical distancing advice and practise good hand and cough hygiene not just for their own safety but in order to protect others.”
NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde’s Director of Public Health Dr Linda de Caestecker said: “Testing centres, like the one at Glasgow Caledonian University will play a vital role increasing our testing capacity, so that students and others who are showing suspected symptoms of COVID can be tested swiftly in their local area. This means we can quickly undertake contact tracing through Test and Protect and prevent further spread.
“I would urge members of the public that they should only request a test if they are experiencing symptoms of COVID-19 which could be a high temperature, a new, continuous cough or a loss of or change to your sense of smell or taste.”